BLACK RAT BY ION RAKHMATULINA

$25,000

EDITORIAL: STUMP!
FORMAT: TSHIRT
YEAR: 2014
COUNTRY: CHILE
PROCESS: INKJET
RE-EDITION: 50

100% ORGANIC COTTON
SIZE CHART

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SKU: RATT012 Categories: , Tags: , ,

Rattus rattus bone remains that date back to the Norman Period have been discovered in Britain. Evidence also suggests that R. rattus existed in prehistoric Europe as well as the Levant during post-glacial periods.[8] The specific origin of the black rat is uncertain due to the rat’s disappearance and reintroduction. Evidence such as DNA and bone fragments also suggests that the rats did not originally come from Europe, but migrated from southeast Asia.[9]

Rats are resilient vectors for many diseases because of their ability to hold so many infectious bacteria in their blood. Rats played a primary role in spreading bacteria, such as Yersinia pestis, which is responsible for the Justinianic plague and bubonic plague.[9] A study published in 2015 indicates that other Asiatic rodents served as plague reservoirs, from which infections spread as far west as Europe via trade routes, both overland and maritime. Although the black rat was certainly a plague vector in European ports, the spread of the plague beyond areas colonized by rats suggests that the plague was also circulated by humans after reaching Europe.[10]

The modern black rat was probably spread across Europe in the wake of the Roman conquest and arose from an ancestor that originated in southeast Asia, possibly Malaysia.[9] The Mediterranean black rats differ genetically from their southeast Asian ancestors by having 38 instead of 42 chromosomes.[9] Therefore, it seems that speciation could have occurred when the rats colonized southwest India, which was the primary country from which Romans obtained their spices. Because Rattus rattus is a passive traveler, they could have easily traveled to Europe during the trading between Rome and southwestern Asian countries. Evidence also suggests that, in 321–331 BC, Egyptian birds were preying on Mediterranean rats, though this is not enough to prove that Egypt was the source of the rats.[9]

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POLICY

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